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How (& Why) to Build a Bat Box

How (& Why) to Build a Bat Box

19 minute read

Are you looking for a unique and effective way to control pesky mosquitoes and other insects in your backyard? Look no further than building a bat box! Not only does it benefit your local ecosystem, but it is also a fun and sustainable project that anyone can do at home.

Matt's kids love to stand outside at dusk and see the bats coming out and catching bugs. 

Key Takeaways:

  • Building a bat box provides a safe and beneficial roost for bats, helping to conserve these important pollinators and pest controllers.
  • Benefits of having bats in your yard include reducing the need for pesticides and promoting healthy ecosystems.
  • When building a bat box, proper materials, size, design, and placement are crucial for success. Regular cleaning and maintenance can also increase the chances of attracting bats.
  • You can purchase a bat box, build one of your own design (more on this below), or use our Bat Box CNC Plans complete with step-by-step instructions, SVG files, DXF Files, Vectric Aspire and Vectric V-Carve Pro files, both compatible with version 9 and up. The Vectric files include all toolpaths set for you.

What Is a Bat Box?

Bats play a crucial role in our ecosystem, but their populations are declining due to loss of natural habitats. One way to help these nocturnal creatures is by providing them with artificial roosts, such as a bat box.

In this section, we discuss the concept of bat conservation and the purpose of bat boxes as artificial roosts. By understanding the importance of these structures, we can learn how to build a bat box and contribute to the preservation of these important animals.

Bat Conservation and Artificial Roosts

Bat conservation and artificial roosts are crucial for supporting bat populations and preserving ecological balance. Building bat boxes is a practical way to contribute to bat conservation efforts. Here are the steps to creating a bat box:

  1. Choose the appropriate design: Popular options include single chamber, multi-chamber, rocket box, nursery bat box, and bat tower.
  2. Gather necessary materials: Wood, screws, and mesh are commonly used.
  3. Cut and assemble the pieces according to the chosen design.
  4. Drill ventilation holes and attach mesh for better gripping.
  5. Include a hinged lid for easy cleaning.
  6. In cool climates, paint the box in dark colors to retain heat. In hot climates, go with a light grey or natural wood. 
  7. Mount the box on a pole or tree, ensuring proper height and orientation.

Placing bat boxes in suitable locations and regularly maintaining them can greatly contribute to enhancing bat populations and preserving biodiversity.

Why Are Bat Boxes Important?

As homeowners, we often strive to create a welcoming and sustainable environment for wildlife in our yards. One beneficial way to do so is by building a bat box. But why are bat boxes important?

In this section, we discuss the numerous benefits of having bats in your yard and how bat boxes can help support their population. From pest control to pollination, you might be surprised by the valuable role that bats play in our ecosystems.

Benefits of Bats in Your Yard

Having bats in your yard can provide numerous benefits to your ecosystem and garden.

  • Pest control: Bats are natural insect predators, consuming a large number of mosquitoes, moths, and agricultural pests, reducing the need for chemical pesticides. Matt used to get infestations of Japanese beetles, but since he hung his bat box, he's seen about 75% fewer of these pests. 

  • Pollination: Bats are effective pollinators, helping to spread the seeds of various plants and trees, contributing to the reproduction and growth of vegetation.

  • Seed dispersal: Bats aid in seed dispersal by consuming fruits and then spreading the seeds through their droppings, assisting with forest regeneration.

  • Biodiversity: Attracting bats to your yard can increase biodiversity, creating a more balanced and resilient ecosystem.

Bats get a bad rep because of rabies (and covid) and the whole "vampire bat" thing, but they don't deserve this. Mosquitoes harm far more people than bats per year, and as it turns out, bats are incredibly effective mosquito hunters!

By providing suitable habitats such as bat boxes, you can actively encourage bats to make your yard their home, reaping the benefits they provide.

little brown bat on hand

I'm endangered! You help me & I'll help you. 

How to Build a Bat Box?

If you're interested in helping out our winged friends and creating a cozy home for bats, building a bat box is a great place to start. But where do you begin?

In this section, we discuss the materials you'll need and the steps involved in building a bat box. By the end, you'll have all the knowledge and skills necessary to create a safe and welcoming space for bats to roost.

Materials and Steps to Building a Bat Box

Building a bat box requires a few materials and specific steps to ensure its effectiveness. Here's a list of materials and steps to guide you:

  1. Materials needed:
    • Untreated wood (plywood or cedar)
    • Screws or nails
    • Wood glue
    • Hinges
    • Mounting brackets or wire
    • Waterproof sealant or paint
  2. Steps to constructing a bat box:
    1. Cut wood pieces according to the specific design requirements for the bat box.
    2. Assemble the box using screws or nails and reinforce with wood glue.
    3. Add hinges for easy access during maintenance.
    4. Apply waterproof sealant or paint to protect the box from weather elements.
    5. Attach mounting brackets or wire to securely mount the bat box.

Remember to research the specific dimensions and design requirements for the type of bat box you intend to build.

Where to Place a Bat Box?

When it comes to building a bat box, placement is key. In this section, we will discuss the ideal locations for installing a bat box and the specific conditions that will attract bats to make it their home.

By understanding the preferences of these nocturnal creatures, we can create a suitable habitat for their survival and contribute to the important role they play in maintaining a healthy ecosystem.

So, let's dive into the ideal conditions for a bat box and learn how to create a welcoming space for our winged friends.

Ideal Conditions for a Bat Box

Creating an ideal environment is crucial for attracting bats to your bat box. Here are some key factors to consider:

  1. Location: Place the bat box in an area with minimal light pollution, away from busy human activity. There should be a water source nearby, and the entrance to the box should not be blocked by branches. 

  2. Height: Mount the box at least 10-12 feet high to ensure bats feel safe from predators.

  3. Avoid Branches: You don't want large branches above the box, as owls will perch there, waiting for the bats to leave the box at night. You also don't want branches directly below the box, as bats prefer to dive out of their nest before spreading their wings to fly.

  4. Orientation: Face the box towards the southeast or southwest, in partial to full sunlight, to receive optimal warmth. 

  5. Temperature: Maintain a temperature range of 80-100°F inside the box, providing warmth for roosting bats. Most people don't realize bats how warm bats like their nest. (There's a limit to this; they will get stressed in roosts above about 105 degrees F.) 

  6. Ventilation: Include proper ventilation to prevent overheating and ensure fresh air circulation.

  7. Protection: Ensure the box is well-protected from harsh weather conditions and predators.

  8. Timing: Hang the box in the fall or early winter, so there is time for the box to "naturalize" and lose any human smells before they start looking for a new home in the spring. 

  9. Matt Adds: The most important thing with a bat box is to not place it on a structure you would mind them getting into. (Like, on the side of your house.) Bat colonies can grow quickly and they will look for new homes, and if that happens to be your own home, that can create a series of other problems that can get expensive very quickly. 

By creating these ideal conditions, you can encourage bats to roost in your bat box, helping with insect control and supporting local biodiversity.

Remember, if your chosen location doesn't work out, that doesn't mean there are no bats in your area. Sometimes it just takes a season or two before they select your box. If you get no bats after 2 years, there may be something off about that location - move it in the fall, and try again.

How to Maintain a Bat Box?

Once you have built a bat box, it is important to maintain it properly to ensure its effectiveness in attracting bats.

In this section, we discuss the simple but essential steps for maintaining a bat box, including cleaning and monitoring signs of success.

By following these tips, you can create a suitable habitat for bats and contribute to their conservation efforts. So, let's dive into the necessary steps for maintaining a bat box.

Cleaning and Signs of Success

Maintaining a bat box is crucial for its success in attracting bats to your yard. Here are the steps to clean and ensure the effectiveness of your bat box:

  1. Regular cleaning: Clean the bat box annually during late winter or early spring to remove any accumulated guano or debris.

  2. Wear protective gear: Use gloves and a mask to protect yourself from potential health risks associated with bat guano.

  3. Gentle cleaning: Use a brush or scraper to remove the guano, taking care not to damage the interior of the bat box.

  4. Inspect for signs of success: Look for evidence of bat activity, such as guano stains, scratches, or bat droppings, which indicate that bats are using the box. (Matt adds: some people won’t like the guano stains, but it’s the best fertilizer for the tree and it washes off every time it rains.)

  5. Make adjustments if needed: If there are no signs of success, consider changing the location or orientation of the bat box to attract bats next year.

Matt says his box requires very little maintenance, especially if you make it out of a naturally rot-resistant wood like cedar. If you make it out of something like pine, you may just need to reseal the outside of the box to keep it from rotting. 

What Are the Different Types of Bat Boxes?

When it comes to providing shelter for bats, there are numerous options to choose from.

Each type of bat box is designed with different features and benefits to cater to the specific needs and preferences of different bat species.

In this section, we will discuss the various types of bat boxes, including the single chamber, multi-chamber, rocket box, nursery, and bat tower.

We will also explore the key elements that make a successful bat box, such as the type of wood used, size and design, and important factors like rough surfaces and ventilation.

By understanding the differences between these different types of bat boxes, you can make an informed decision on which one is best suited for your local bat population.

1. Single Chamber Bat Box

  • Simplicity: This design is straightforward, consisting of only one large chamber.
  • Species: Best for smaller bat species.
  • Location: Ideal for mounting on buildings or trees.
  • Limitation: Offers less space and fewer temperature variations, which may not attract a diverse range of bats.

2. Multi-chamber Bat Box (that's our bat box!)

  • Complexity: Contains multiple chambers, offering more space.
  • Species: Suitable for a variety of bat species, including larger ones.
  • Temperature Gradient: Provides varied temperature zones, which is crucial as bats seek different temperatures for roosting and rearing young.
  • Capacity: Can accommodate more bats compared to a single chamber box.
  • Optional: Attach a mesh landing pad under the entrance to provide bats with a foothold when entering or exiting the bat box. Bats will still be able to dive-bomb from the landing pad. Otherwise, make sure you have a rough surface below the entrance to enable the bats to grab on and enter. 

3. Rocket Box Bat House

  • Design: Tall and narrow, resembling a rocket.
  • Installation: Often installed on poles or against buildings.
  • Capacity: Can house a large colony, making it ideal for species that live in groups.
  • Ventilation: Excellent airflow, beneficial for bat health.

4. Nursery Bat Box

  • Purpose: Specifically designed for female bats to raise their young.
  • Temperature: Often built to absorb and retain more heat, creating a warm environment suitable for baby bats.
  • Size: Larger and deeper to provide safety and space for mother bats and their pups.
  • Tip: To attract bats, consider planting night-blooming flowers or installing a nearby water source.

5. Bat Tower

  • Size: Very large, often standing several feet tall, with multiple internal chambers.
  • Capacity: Can house hundreds to thousands of bats, serving as a significant roosting site.
  • Construction: More complex and expensive to build.
  • Location: Best for open areas where large colonies are present or expected.

bat tower - now that's a big bat house!

Bat box? More like a bat city!

When deciding which type to build, consider the bat species in your area, the amount of space you have, and your capacity to build and maintain the box. Each design has its advantages, and choosing the right one can greatly benefit the local bat population.

Key Elements for Successful Bat Boxes

Creating successful bat boxes requires careful consideration of key elements to ensure attractiveness and safety for bats. Here are several important factors to consider:

Sun Exposure:

  • Bats need warmth, especially for nursery colonies. Place the bat box where it gets at least 6-8 hours of direct sunlight.
  • South-facing locations are typically ideal in the Northern Hemisphere, as they receive the most sunlight.


  • Bat boxes should be mounted at least 10-12 feet above the ground. This height provides safety from predators and ensures a good flight path for bats entering and exiting.

Near Water:

  • Proximity to water sources like ponds, streams, or wetlands is beneficial, as bats feed on insects found near water.

Avoid Light Pollution:

  • Choose a site away from bright lights. Bats prefer darker areas as they are nocturnal creatures.

Clear Flight Path:

  • Ensure there are no obstructions like branches or wires in front of the entrance. Bats need a clear approach to their roost.

Stable Temperature:

  • Avoid places with extreme temperature fluctuations. The side of a building or a sturdy tree can provide a more stable temperature environment.

Quiet and Undisturbed: 

  • Bats are sensitive to disturbances. Choose a location that’s away from high human or pet activity.

Avoid Pesticide Exposure: 

  • Ensure the area does not have heavy pesticide usage, as it can harm bats and their food sources.

Grouping Boxes: 

  • If installing multiple boxes, space them a few feet apart. Different species or colonies may choose separate boxes.


  • The box should be oriented to face an open area, providing a clear view for bats to detect and avoid predators.

Remember, it might take some time for bats to find and start using your bat box, sometimes up to a year or two. Patience is key. Also, avoid checking the box too often, as disturbances can deter bats from returning.

Exterior Grade Plywood and Other Building Materials

When constructing a bat box, it is essential to select the appropriate materials for durability and long-lasting use. Exterior grade plywood is an excellent choice due to its ability to withstand outdoor conditions.

 In addition, screws, nails, hinges, and waterproof glue are necessary for the construction process. It is vital to ensure that all materials used are safe for bats and do not contain any harmful chemicals. With careful selection and use of these building materials, a sturdy and efficient bat box can be created.

Proper Size and Design for Bat Species

Selecting the correct size and design for bat boxes is crucial in attracting specific bat species. Follow these steps to ensure the right size and design:

  1. Research the bat species in your area to understand their preferences.
  2. Select a bat box design that suits the roosting needs of the targeted species.
  3. Consider the dimensions of the bat box, including height, width, and depth.
  4. Provide appropriate entry slots or crevices based on the size of the bats.
  5. Ensure adequate ventilation and drainage to maintain a suitable environment.

Pro-tip: Incorporating rough surfaces inside the bat box can aid bats in gripping and roosting more easily.

Importance of Rough Wood, Tight Spaces, and Dark Colors

Importance of rough wood, tight spaces, and dark colors in bat boxes:

  • Rough wood: Bats prefer rough surfaces for clinging and roosting.
  • Tight spaces: Bats like cozy spaces that provide security and protection.
  • Dark colors: Dark colors absorb heat, creating a warm environment that attracts bats.

Suggestions for incorporating these elements:

  1. Choose bat boxes made of rough wood or add rough textures to smooth surfaces.
  2. Ensure the interior of the bat box has narrow crevices and partitions for bats to roost.
  3. Paint the exterior of the bat box with dark colors like black or dark brown.

Preventing Buildup and Promoting Air Flow

Maintaining a bat box and ensuring it remains an attractive habitat for bats requires preventing buildup and promoting air flow. Here are some steps to follow:

  1. Regular cleaning: Clean the bat box annually to remove any accumulated debris or guano that can impede air flow.
  2. Proper ventilation: Ensure that the bat box has adequate ventilation holes or gaps to encourage air circulation.
  3. Avoid tight spaces: Design the bat box with ample space and avoid narrow crevices to prevent buildup and allow for easy cleaning.
  4. Choose appropriate materials: Select materials that are resistant to moisture and decay, preventing the growth of mold and fungi.
  5. Regular inspections: Check the bat box periodically for any signs of damage, leaks, or blockages that may hinder proper airflow.

Multiple Chambers and Chamber Size

When constructing a bat box, it is important to consider both the number of chambers and their sizes. Having multiple chambers allows for a larger number of bats to inhabit the box, which can lead to a thriving bat population.

It is essential to research the specific requirements for the types of bats in your area, as different species have varying preferences for chamber size. Larger chambers are suitable for bigger bats, while smaller chambers are better for smaller bats.

By incorporating a variety of chamber sizes in your bat box design, you can attract a diverse group of bats to your yard and create a welcoming habitat for these beneficial creatures.

Other Factors to Consider for Different Types of Bat Boxes

When constructing various types of bat boxes, there are several additional factors to take into account for optimal success. These include:

  • Placement: Ensure that the bat box is situated in an area with direct sunlight and is at least 10-12 feet above the ground.
  • Design: Different bat box designs are tailored to specific species, such as single chamber boxes for smaller bats and nursery boxes for maternity colonies.
  • Construction: Use appropriate materials, such as rough wood or plastic, to provide bats with a suitable surface for roosting.
  • Maintenance: Regularly inspect and clean the bat box, removing any debris or pests that may discourage bats from using it.
  • Heat: Bats can easily overheat. After the summer we just had (2023), you want to consider having 2 bat boxes, one of which is either north-facing or which gets shade during the hottest part of the day. 

Considering these factors will greatly enhance the effectiveness of bat boxes in attracting and providing a habitat for bats.

FAQs about How And Why To Build A Bat Box

1. Can I use pressure-treated wood for my bat box? 

Using pressure-treated wood for building a bat box is generally not recommended. Here's why:

  • Chemical Concerns: Pressure-treated wood contains chemicals that are used to protect it from insects, fungi, and weathering. These chemicals, such as arsenic in older treatments and copper in newer ones, can be harmful to bats. Bats are sensitive creatures, and exposure to these chemicals could potentially be toxic to them.
  • Off-Gassing: Over time, pressure-treated wood can release chemicals into the air (off-gassing), especially when it heats up in the sun. This could create an unhealthy environment for the bats.
  • Alternatives: It's better to use untreated, natural wood like cedar, pine, or plywood. These materials are safer for bats and still provide the durability needed for an outdoor structure. If you're concerned about the longevity of the bat box, you can apply a non-toxic, water-based exterior sealant to untreated wood for protection against the elements.
  • Maintenance and Safety: Regular maintenance of the bat box, like checking for damage or wear and fixing issues promptly, can compensate for the shorter lifespan of untreated wood. This practice ensures a safe and healthy environment for the bats over time.

While pressure-treated wood has advantages in terms of durability and resistance to decay, its chemical content makes it a less ideal choice for bat box construction due to potential health risks for bats. Opting for untreated, natural wood is a safer and more environmentally friendly option.

2. Why are bat boxes important?

Bat houses provide secure roost sites for bats that have been excluded from homes, reducing the chance of human contact with bats. They also offer a safe environment for bats to raise their young and help control pest insect populations.

3. How do bat houses help reduce human contact with bats?

By providing alternative roosting habitat, bat boxes help keep bats out of homes where they may come into contact with humans. This is important for both bat and human safety.

4. What is the purpose of installing a bat box on my property?

Installing a bat house can provide a safe environment for bats to roost, while also protecting your yard from pest insects. It also gives female bats a warm place to raise their young, which helps slow the decline of bat populations.

5. How do bat houses help control pest insect populations?

Bats are natural predators of pest insects like mosquitoes, moths, and beetles. By providing a home for bats, bat boxes can help decrease the need for pesticides, which can be harmful to the environment.

6. What is the recommended size for a bat box?

Bat houses should be at least 24 inches tall with chambers at least 20 inches tall. They should also be at least 14 inches wide and have multiple chambers that are ¾ to 2 inches apart. Taller and wider houses are better.

7. Where can I purchase a bat house?

Bat boxes can be purchased at many garden centers, home improvement stores, and online retailers. There are also easy-to-assemble kits available from the Boy Scouts of America and pre-assembled bat houses available through various organizations.

Watch How to Make a Bat Box fullscreen.

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